List of Defence Ministers of Independent India

List of Defence Ministers of Independent India: Jai Hind, Warriors! India, in this article we have provided you all the defence minister of India after Independence. India has witnessed many wars with Pakistan because of Kashmir Issue and Counter-Insurgency Terror Operations and Defence minister that time have played crucial role in making the decision. Currently Ministry of Defence (MoD) is headed by Shri Rajnath Singh of BJP.

List of Defence Ministers of Independent India


Baldev Singh
Sep 2, 1946
Indian National Congress
Kailash Nath Katju
Indian National Congress
V. K. Krishna Menon
Indian National Congress
Yashwantrao Chavan
Indian National Congress
Sardar Swaran Singh
Indian National Congress
Jagjivan Ram
Indian National Congress
Sardar Swaran Singh
Indian National Congress
Indira Gandhi
Indian National Congress
Bansi Lal
Dec 21, 1975
Mar 24, 1977
Indian National Congress
Jagjivan Ram
Mar 24, 1977
Jul 28, 1979
Janata Party
Chidambaram Subramaniam
Jul 28, 1979
Jan 14, 1980
Janata Party
Indira Gandhi
Jan 14, 1980
Indian National Congress
R. Venkataraman
Indian National Congress
Shankarrao Chavan
Indian National Congress
P. V. Narasimha Rao
Indian National Congress
Rajiv Gandhi
Indian National Congress
V. P. Singh
Indian National Congress
K. C. Pant
Indian National Congress
V. P. Singh
Dec 2, 1989
Nov 10, 1990
Janata Dal
Chandra Shekhar
Nov 10, 1990
Jun 26, 1991
Samajwadi Janata Party
Sharad Pawar
Jun 26, 1991
Mar 6, 1993
Indian National Congress
P. V. Narasimha Rao
Mar 6, 1993
May 16, 1996
Indian National Congress
Pramod Mahajan
May 16, 1996
Jun 1, 1996
Bharatiya Janata Party
Mulayam Singh Yadav
Jun 1, 1996
Mar 19, 1998
Samajwadi Party
George Fernandes
Mar 19, 1998
Samata Party
Jaswant Singh
Bharatiya Janata Party
George Fernandes
May 22, 2004
Samata Party
Pranab Mukherjee
May 22, 2004
Oct 24, 2006
Indian National Congress
A.K. Antony
Oct 24, 2006
May 26, 2014
Indian National Congress
Arun Jaitley
May 27, 2014
Nov 10, 2014
Bharatiya Janata Party
Manohar Parrikar
Nov 10, 2014
13 March 2017
Bharatiya Janata Party
Nirmala Sitharaman
3 September 2017  31 May 2019
Bharatiya Janata Party
Rajnath Singh
31 May 2019 – Present

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List of Training institutions of Indian Armed Forces: Check Here

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What is Kashmir issue? Know Here

List of Training institutions of Indian Armed Forces: Check Here

List of Training institutions of Indian Armed Forces: Having  Knowledge about Indian Armed Forces gives you a upper hand in your preparation for defence examination and SSB Interview as well.  In this article we will provide you information regarding the training institution of Indian Armed Forces . Indian Armed Forces are divided into three services, Indian Army, Indian Navy, Indian Air Force. The three services functions under their respective Chiefs of staff.

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List of Training institutions of Indian Armed Forces

  • Rashtriya Indian Military College (RIMC)
    Place: Dehradun
    Established: 1922
  • Army Cadet College (ACC)
    Place: Dehradun
    Established: 1929
  • Indian Military Academy (IMA)
    Place: Dehradun
    Established: 1932
  • National Defence Academy (NDA)
    Place: Khadakwasla, Pune
    Established: 1941
  • High Altitude Warfare School (HAWS)
    Place: Gulmarg
    Established: 1948
  • National Defence College (NDC)
    Place: New Delhi
    Established: 1960
  • Officers Training Academy (OTA)
    Place: Chennai
    Established: 1963
  • Counter Insurgency and Jungle Warfare School
    Place: Vairengte, Mizoram
    Established: 1970
  • College of Defence Management
    Place: Secunderabad
    Established: 1970
  • College of Combat/Army War College
    Place: Mhow, Madhya Pradesh
    Established: 1971
  • Army School of Physical Training (ASPT)
    Place: Pune
    Established: 1978

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Leading Mineral Producing State of India: Full List Here

Leading Mineral Producing State of India: Static General Knowledge plays important role in Defence Examination General Knowledge Section, hence revising this section in very important. In this article we have given the leading mineral producing state of India

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Leading Mineral Producing States

Mineral/Metal State
Coal Jharkhand
Bauxite (Aluminium Ore) Odisha
Chromite (Chromium ore) Odisha
Iron Ore Odisha
Manganese Odisha
Lead & Zinc Rajasthan
Calcite (source of marble) Rajasthan
Gypsum (used in fertiliser, plaster of paris etc.) Rajasthan
Quartz Rajasthan
Asbestos Andhra Pradesh
Limestone Andhra Pradesh
Mica Andhra Pradesh
Barytes Andhra Pradesh
Diamond Madhya Pradesh
Copper Ore Madhya Pradesh
Gold Karnataka
Corundum (source of ruby, sapphire) Maharashtra
Rock Salt Himachal Pradesh
Crude Oil Rajasthan
Natural Gas Assam
Barytes are used as weighting agent for drilling fluids in oil & gas exploration, barium is used in CT Scan

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What is Kashmir issue? Know Here

What is Kashmir issue: Kashmir is the northern most geographical region of the Indian Union consisting of Jammu, Kashmir Valley and Ladakh regions.

What is Kashmir issue? Know Here

The roots of the Kashmir problem lie in the countries shared colonial past. Prior to the partition in 1947, the Indian sub- continent was ruled by British crown directly including some 550 princely states which were also ruled by the British crown indirectly through a treaty.

After world war 2, the crown decided to end the British rule and accordingly two separate nations, i.e. Hindu dominated India and on the other side Muslim dominated Pakistan were formed based on the two nations theory by Mohammed Ali Jinnah. The princely states within colonial India not directly governed by the British were given options to join either of the two nations or remain independent.

At that time, the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir having a Muslim majority population, was governed by Maharaja Hari Singh, a Hindu ruler. Unlike the most of the princely states which aligned themselves to either of the two nations, the Maharaja opted for independence.


As the partition related violence raged across the two nations, Govt of Pakistan pressurised Kashmir to join it. Pro Pakistan rebels funded by Pakistan occupied much of western Kashmir now known as POK. The maharaja at this stage requested the govt of India for help. India agreed to help militarily provided Kashmir acceded to India.


The maharaja readily agreed and Instrument of Accession, the document that aligned Kashmir with the dominion of India was signed in October 1947. The state of Jammu and Kashmir was later given a special status under the Indian constitution- a status which guaranteed that the state of Kashmir would have dominance in the Indian constitution. This was agreed to by the Maharaja and Kashmir was accessed to India. The period of Insurgency began in the 1990s along with two wars that is the Kargil war in 1999 and war in the year 1947 when Pakistan was defeated and Kashmir was accessed to India.


At last, problem of Kashmir has been going on for a very long time now. And the special status of the state was revoked on August 19 2019. Thus, uniting the state with the Indian union. Pakistan has made several attempts to gain control over Kashmir in 1947, 1965 and in 1999. But has failed each and every time. India also plans to one day take POK from Pakistan and make the Kashmir region a peaceful place to live in.

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Varuna 2021, India-France Naval Exercise: All you need to know

Varuna 2021: The Indian and French Navies recently conducted the Varuna Naval Exercise in the Arabian Sea, named Varuna, 2021. It is a part of the Clemenceau 2021.

Varuna 2021, India-France Naval Exercise

The activity included surface and hostile to weapon firings, strategic moves, rotating wing flying tasks including cross deck helicopter arrivals and air safeguard and against submarine activities.

The Indian Navy was addressed by Stealth destroyer INS Kolkata, INS Talwar, INS Tarkash, Fleet Support Ship INS Deepak, Chetak Integral helicopters and a Kalvari class submarine. Additionally, the P81 Long reach Patrol Aircraft took part.

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The French Navy was addressed by E2C Hawkeye airplanes, Rafale-M warrior, Horizon class air protection destroyer Chevalier Paul.

After VARUNA, 2021, the INS Tarkash is to proceed with its activity with the French Navy CSG. During the activity, the naval forces will direct progressed surface, air-protection tasks and hostile to submarine tasks.

Clemenceau 21. On February 21, 2021, the French Carrier Strike Group set forth for a long operational arrangement called “Clemenceau 21”. With this mission, the French Navy sent its military presence in spaces of key interests specifically Mediterranean Sea, Persian Gulf and the Indian Ocean.

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As a piece of Clemenceau 21, France held the GASWEX with its partners. Different nations that partook in the GASWEX practice were France, Japan, Belgium and US powers. The activity was held in the Arabian Sea and in the Gulf of Oman.

What is CSG?

CSG is Carrier Strike Group. They are deliberately pre-situated. It is generally made out of 7,500 staff. It incorporates a plane carrying warship, a destroyer unit, in any event one cruiser, transporter wing of 65 to 70 airplanes. Incidentally it likewise incorporates submarines.

The CSG of Japan that is taking part in Clemenceau 21 is Nationale’s Charles De Gaulle

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DRDO conducts maiden trial of Python-5 Air to Air Missile: Key Points

DRDO conducts maiden trial of Python-5 Air to Air Missile: Tejas, India’s indigenous Light Combat Aircraft, added the 5th generation Python-5 Air-to-Air Missile (AAM) in its air-to-air weapons capability on April 27, 2021. Trials were also aimed to validate enhanced capability of already integrated Derby Beyond Visual Range (BVR) AAM on Tejas.

The test firing at Goa completed a series of missile trials to validate its performance under extremely challenging scenarios. Derby missile achieved direct hit on a high-speed maneuvering aerial target and the Python missiles also achieved 100% hits, thereby validating their complete capability. The trials met all their planned objectives.

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DRDO conducts maiden trial of Python-5 Air to Air Missile

Prior to these trials, extensive missile carriage flight tests were conducted at Bengaluru to assess integration of the missile with aircraft systems on board the Tejas, like Avionics, Fire-control radar, Missile Weapon Delivery System and the Flight Control System.

At Goa, after successful separation trials, live launch of the missile on a Banshee target was carried out. Python-5 missile live firing was conducted to validate target engagement from all aspects as well as beyond visual ranges. In all the live firings, missile hit the aerial target.

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The missiles were fired from Tejas aircraft of Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) flown by Indian Air Force (IAF) Test pilots belonging to National Flight Test Centre (NFTC). The successful conduct was made possible with years of hard work by the team of scientists, engineers and technicians from ADA and HAL-ARDC along with admirable support from CEMILAC, DG-AQA, IAF PMT, NPO (LCA Navy) and INS HANSA.

Defence Minister Shri Rajnath Singh has congratulated the teams of DRDO, ADA, Indian Air Force, HAL and all involved in the trial. Secretary Department of Defence R&D and Chairman DRDO Dr G Satheesh Reddy appreciated the efforts of scientists, engineers and technicians from various organizations and industry.

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Army Dental Corps Recruitment 2021: Direct Link to Apply Online

Army Dental Corps Recruitment 2021: Indian Army has officially  released  the notification for Army Dental Corps 2021 Notification for the recruitment to the post of Short Service Commission officers. In this article we have provided you Army Dental Corps application process, age limit, qualification, experience, selection criteria and other details. The online application process can be filled from

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Army Dental Corps Recruitment 2021: Important Dates

Commencement of submission of application: 19 April 2021

Last date for submission of application: 17 May 2021

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Short Service Commission in Army Dental Corps 2021 – 37 Posts

Army Dental Corps 2021 Eligibility Criteria

Educational Qualification: Candidates must be BDS (with minimum 55% marks in final year BDS)/MDS having passed from a College/University recognized by the Dental Council of India (DCI). He/she should have completed a one-year Compulsory Rotatory Internship, as mandated by DCI, by 31 Mar 2021 & must be in possession of a Permanent Dental Registration Certificate of State Dental Council/DCI valid at least up to 31 Dec 2021. The candidates (BDS/MDS) who have appeared in the National Eligibility-cum-Entrance Test, NEET (MDS)-2021 conducted by the National Board of Examinations (NBE), New Delhi, under the aegis of the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, GoI, on 16 Dec 2020, at various examination centres of NBE, are eligible to apply. Candidates must submit a copy of the Mark-sheet/Score card of NEET (MDS)-2021 along with the application.

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Army Dental Corps 2021 Age Limit – Not more than 45 Years

How to apply for Army Dental Corps 2021

Interested candidates can apply online from 19 April to 17 May 2021. After submission of the online application, the candidates can take a printout of the online application for future reference.

Online Application Link

Official Website

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UPSC CSE Syllabus 2021: Prelims and Mains Detailed Syllabus

UPSC CSE Syllabus 2021: UPSC CSE (IAS) exam syllabus for both prelims and mains exam is very comprehensive as well as extensive. Before you start your preparation for UPSC CSE 2021, having detailed idea about UPSC Syllabus is very important. In this article we have provided you with the detailed syllabus of UPSC CSE 2021 syllabus.

UPSC CSE Syllabus 2021

UPSC IAS Exam has three exam stages:

(i) Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination (Objective Type) to shortlist  candidates for the Mains Exam.

(ii) Civil Services Mains Examination (Written): This test is for the selection of candidates for the next level i.e  UPSC Interview

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(iii) Civil Services Personality Test (PT)- The final stage for selection process.

UPSC (IAS) Civil Services Exam Pattern 2021

UPSC tests the analytical, logical, and reasoning ability of the candidates in IAS Prelims, The IAS Prelims Exam is divided into two parts:

(i) General Studies Paper-I

(ii) General Studies Paper-II

Both these papers have a maximum time limit of two hours and the General Studies Paper-II, which is popularly known as CSAT, is only qualifying in nature. The exam is conducted on a single day with Paper 1 in the morning session and paper 2 in the evening session.

UPSC IAS Syllabus Prelims Exam 2021: GS Paper I

Marks: 200

Duration:  2 hours

Sl. No


Subject-wise Division Detailed Syllabus
1 History

History of India and Indian Freedom Struggle

Ancient History of India

Medieval History of India

Modern History 1857 to 1947

Indian National Movement

2 Geography

Geography of India and

Concept of Physical Geography

Physical Geography

Human Geography

Economic Geography

World Geography

3 Polity

Indian Polity and Governance issues

Union Executives

State Executives

Federalism in India

Judicial System

Panchayati Raj

4 Economy

Indian Economy and Social Development

Basic Principles of Indian Economy

Social Schemes of Government

Social Development through Economic Empowerment

Sustainable Development


5 Environment and Ecology

Principles of Environment and Ecology

General Principles

Climate Change and

Climate Summits and Conferences

6 General Science

Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Technology

General Principles

Latest Science and Technological Development

7 Current Events

It covers all the events of National and International Importance

Current Affairs

Current Affairs with all Dimensions

UPSC IAS Syllabus Prelims Exam 2021: General Studies Paper II (CSAT) [Qualifying]

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Marks: 200 marks

Duration: 2 hours

1. Reading Comprehension

2. Interpersonal skills including communication skills;

3. Logical reasoning and analytical ability

4. Decision making and problem-solving ability

5. General mental ability

6. Basic numeracy (numbers and their relations, orders of magnitude, etc.) (Class X level), Data interpretation (charts, graphs, tables, data sufficiency etc. – Class X level)

7. English Language Comprehension skills (Class X level).

8. Questions relating to English Language Comprehension skills of Class X level (last item in the Syllabus of Paper-II) will be tested through passages from English language only without providing Hindi translation thereof in the question paper.

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UPSC IAS Main Exam 2021 Syllabus

IAS Main Exam has four general studies papers, two compulsory language papers, one essay paper, and two papers of Optional subject. It is a descriptive type of exam and has a totally enhanced version of the IAS Prelims exam. It can be said that the IAS Main Syllabus is a mammoth expansion of the IAS Prelims Syllabus.

Sl. No. Name of Paper Syllabus
1 Essay Paper Any Topic/Topics (Current issues) 250
2 GS Paper I Indian Heritage and
Culture, Indian History, World History, World Geography, Indian Society, Important Geo-physical phenomena
3 GS Paper II Governance, Indian Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and
International relations, Welfare Schemes, Statutory, regulatory and quasi-judicial bodies, Role of civil services in a democracy, India’s relation with neighbour countries, International institutions,
4 GS Paper III Technology,
Economic Development, Bio diversity,
Indian Economy and its various sectorsGovernment BudgetingLand ReformsInclusive Growth

Security and Disaster Management

5 GS Paper IV Ethics and Human Interface



Emotional Intelligence

Emotional Intelligence

Public/Civil service value

Probity in Governance

Case study on above topics

6 Indian Language Paper (i) Comprehension of given passages
(ii) Précis Writing
(iii) Usage and Vocabulary
(iv) Short Essays
(v) Translation from English to the Indian
language and vice-versa
7 English Comprehension of given passages
Précis Writing
Usage and Vocabulary
Short Essays
8 Optional Paper I As opted by Candidate 250
9 Optional Paper II As opted by Candidate 250
Here is the list of Optional Subject and Syllabus in IAS Mains Exam 2021

(i) Agriculture

(ii) Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science

(iii) Anthropology

(iv) Botany

(v) Chemistry

(vi) Civil Engineering

(vii) Commerce and Accountancy

(viii) Economics

(ix) Electrical Engineering

(x) Geography

(xi) Geology

(xii) History

(xiii) Law

(xiv) Management

(xv) Mathematics

(xvi) Mechanical Engineering

(xvii) Medical Science

(xviii) Philosophy

(xix) Physics

(xx) Political Science and International Relations

(xxi) Psychology

(xxii) Public Administration

(xxiii) Sociology

(xxiv) Statistics

(xxv) Zoology

The literature of any one of the languages such as Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Maithili, Malayalam, Marathi, Manipuri, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Santhali, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu, English.

Once you have thoroughly assessed the syllabus, the next step is the right selection of reference books.

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How to Score Good Marks in CDS 2021 Mathematics Section?

How to Score Good Marks in CDS 2021 Mathematics Section: Combined Defense Services Examination(CDSe) is conducted by the Union Public Service Commission twice every year (around Feb and Nov) for the induction of the officials into the Indian Armed Forces i.e Indian Army, Indian Air Force, Indian Navy.  Online Benchers will help you in clearing the written and SSB Interview with India’s best defense faculties . In this article we have given you chapter-wise weightage of marks in Mathematics Section, and strategy to score good marks in this section.

How to Score Good Marks in CDS 2021 Mathematics Section

Elementary Mathematics includes

● Number System
● Decimal fractions.
● Time and distance,
● Time and work,
● Percentages,
● Simple and compound interest,
● Profit and loss,
● Ratio and proportion,
● Division algorithm.
● H.C.F. and L.C.M.
● Logarithms to base 10,
● Theory of polynomials,
● Solutions of quadratic equations,
● Linear equations in two variables and their solutions.
● Laws of indices.
● Trigonometry
● Simple cases of heights and distances.
● Geometry
● Lines and angles,
● Mensuration
● Statistics

High weightage topics:

Topic No. of questions
Number System 20-22
Mensuration 14-16
Geometry 10-12
Trigonometry 10-12
Algebra 10-11

Moderate weightage topics:

Topic No. of Questions
Time, Speed and Distance 6-7
Statistics 7-8
Time, speed and Distance 6-7
Time and Work 4-5
Percentage 3-5


Low weightage topics:

Topic No. of Questions
DI 2-3
Profit and Loss 1-2
Ratio and Proportion 1-3
Simple Interest 1-2
Compound Interest 1-2
Miscellaneous 1-4

Defence aspirants must keep in mind that if they want to get admission in the IMA/INA/AFA than they have to appear in this examination and even score good marks.(Min 20 out of 100).  All those candidate who have Maths back ground find it easy to clear the math exam but those who are not good should keep in mind that they should cover the chapters which are easy and can help you to score at least 30-50 marks in the exam. Solve previous year question paper to know the type of questions asked in CDS Mathematics section. Watch YouTube free Video for CDS  2021 Mathematics Sections to score good marks in exam.

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SRTs asked in SSB Interview with Reaction: Check Here

SRTs asked in SSB Interview

These are some of the important Situation Reactions that are asked in SSB Interview. We have provided these situation with best possible acceptable response. You have to be practical and truthful while giving these responses.

1. While going to his village on a bicycle, he met with a serious accident resulting into serious injury to the pillion rider and damage to his vehicle.  He…..

Ans. He gave first aid to injured, took him to nearest hospital leaving his vehicle locked behind.

2. While going to his college on bicycle, he was hit by a car.  He……

Ans. He balanced his movements, noted down car number, reported traffic police, continued his journey.

3. Moving on a bicycle with his brother, towards his village, he suddenly found that the vehicle got punctured and his brother was running high fever, no public transport was available there.  He……

Ans. He took lift from a passer by vehicle (bullock cart/tractor), took his brother to nearest doctor on the way, got bicycle repaired, went home.

4. Returning from picnic, he had to cross the river with his friends and he found that the temporary bridge had collapsed.  He……….

Ans. He motivated his friends, swam across the river, reached the destination.

5. Going over the bridge of a river along with his friends, he found some of them had already crossed the bridge when suddenly the bridge collapsed.  He……………

Ans. He arranged boat for the remaining, crossed the river, reached the destination.

6. While crossing the river he found his boat overturning in the mid of the river.  He………. 

Ans. He jumped out, swam across the river.

7. While crossing the river in a boat, he found the boar has developed a leak/hole and water started coming in.  He…………….

Ans. He plugged the leak with cloth, threw water with bucket, continued boating crossed the river.

8. Due to heavy rain the river was rising and he had to cross the river to reach his village.  He……..

Ans. He waited till rain stopped, then crossed the river by boat.

9. While going college, he saw fire in a building, people were panicking.  He………..

Ans. He pacified the people, switched off the mains, used fire extinguishers, called up fire brigade, rescued people from fire, admitted them to nearest hospital.

10. He is urgently needed of money.  He………..

Ans. He borrowed money from friend, did the work, returned money on time.

11. He had a need for money for a long duration.  He……………

Ans. He took up part time job or tuitions, continued studies, got job and helped the family.

12. One of his friends needed money.  He……………

Ans. He helped them financially or arranged money for them.

13. While playing a hockey match, he twisted his ankle very badly.  He………………

Ans. He took first aid, continued playing and won the match.

14. As the captain of his team, he found his players rather discourages while playing a match.  He……………

Ans. He encouraged them, played the match and won it.

15. During his doubles match, he found his partner missing.  He…………..

Ans. He took the substitute player, played the match and won it.

16. While watching a match, he found the supporters of two rival team started fighting.  He……………

Ans. He pacified them, urged to show sportsman spirit, helped the authorities to control the situation.

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17. During the final match he found his captain was unable to continue due to serious injury.  He…………..

Ans. He took the responsibility of the captain, played and won.

18. During a mountaineering trip. He found some members of his team were injured and some got tired because of longer route taken by the party.  He…….

Ans. He gave first aid to injured, consulted route map to take short route, encourage friends, continued trip and reached the destination.

19. During a climbing expedition just before reaching on the mountain top or peak, he found his feet were slipping due to sand underneath his feet.  He…..

Ans. He dug the axe, controlled his balance, changed steps to move up and reached at top.

20. During a train journey, he found some co-passengers arguing unnecessarily and disturbing others.  He………..

Ans. He persuaded them not to do so, created cordial atmosphere and completed journey happily.

21. During a train journey, he found that compartment caught fire and people were trying to jump out from the running train.  He………..

Ans. He pulled the alarm chain, stopped people to jump out, first aid, evacuation of people, asked recovery train, helped to douse fires and complete the journey.

22. During his journey he found some robbers entered the compartment and trying to loot the passengers.  He…

Ans. He overpowered them along with the fellow passengers, handed them over to police and completed the journey.

23. While going to a particular destination, he entered a wrong train, at the platform only two minutes were left for the right train to start.  He…..

Ans. He rushed to board the right train, caught it and completed the journey.

24. During the journey, he found a man pickpocketing his purse.  He…………….

Ans. He caught his red handed, handed him over to police and completed the journey.

25. He found an old lady about to fall from the door of the compartment of a running train.  He……..

Ans. He rushed to her, saved her from falling.

26. T.E. came to check his ticket but he found that his purse, containing the ticket and cash, was pickpocketed.  He……..

Ans. He established his identity, took cash from a fellow passenger in lieu of cheque.

27. While going to place for an urgent work, he found the only bus left was full and no other public conveyance was available.  He…………….

Ans. He somehow manage his entry into bus and traveled the distance standing.

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28. Being the eldest in his family, he found his family was uprooted due to Tsunami.  He………..

Ans. He took all the responsibilities, rehabilitated the family by arranging necessary things, encouraged family members and faced the situation boldly.

29. He found a few team members were going back rather joining picnic.  He……….

Ans. He inquired into the reason, removed all misconceptions, convinced them to stay, enjoyed with them and returned happily.

30. In a picnic towards the late hours of the evening he was served with cold food by his friends.  He……………

Ans. He accepted the cold food and enjoyed friend’s company.

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